They are essentially instrumental ways of investigations in nerve disorders. Types of such would be the Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electromyogram (EMG), Neuroradiology, Special radiological studies, Angiography, Air encephalography and Ventriculography.

Electroencephalogram (ECG)

The electrical activity from the brain could be recorded by suitably placed electrodes within the scalp. Abnormal electrical activity happens in seizure disorders, coma, poisoning, tumors etc. Such conditions, the ECG gives valuable information. For detecting brain dying, the EEG evidence is completely essential. A set record for ten minutes is diagnostic.

Electromyogram (EMG)

The electrical activity of muscles could be drawn on by needle electrodes introduced into them which could be recorded to provide visual or auditory display after appropriate amplification. Permanent records can be created on magnet tapes or in writing. In myopathies and denervation the electrical activity occurring resting and through voluntary activity gives characteristic patterns that are diagnostic.

Motor and physical nerve conduction studies

The rate of conduction in motor and physical peripheral nerves could be calculated after appropriate nerve stimulation and recording. This research is helpful in detecting peripheral nerve lesions, particularly when there’s local compression.


This branch of radiology has expanded tremendously and many diagnostic techniques can be found. Plain X-ray of skull within the postero-anterior, lateral and special views (eg, Towne’s for that internal auditory meatus) assist in discovering rare faction from the skull, fractures, bony erosions, calcification, enlargement from the sella turcica, and shift of midline structures like a calcified pineal gland. Radiology from the servical spine is important in visualizing boney lesions, vascular calcification and abnormalities from the craniovertebral junction.

Special radiological studies

Myelography demonstrates the spine subarachnoid space. X-sun rays are taken after presenting contrast agent (2-10 ml of myodil) in to the theca and positioning the individual to permit the dye to pass through up or lower. This process precisely delineates the reason for spinal-cord compression.

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